Welcome to the Features website. This page gives a brief introduction to grammatical features and an explanation of some academic and technical conventions adopted in this website. Both the content and the structure of the Features website, in particular the Feature Inventory, will be updated on a regular basis. When accessing the Features website, please check the date the page was last updated this is given at the bottom of each page. We hope you will find this resource useful, and that you may help us improve it by sharing your expertise with us.
Comments, corrections and contributions to the website are very welcome and will be gratefully acknowledged. You will find our e-mail address on the Contact page. Thank you. What are grammatical features?
Who is this resource for? Notational conventions. Standards in morphosyntactic annotation. In attempting to understand language, many researchers use featuresthe elements into which linguistic units, such as words, can be broken down. Features have proved invaluable for analysis and description, and have a major role in contemporary linguistics, from the most abstract theorising to the most applied computational applications. Yet little is firmly established about features: we have no inventory of which features are found in the world's languages, no agreed account of how they operate across different components of language, no certainty on how they interact, and thus no general theory of features.
They are used, but are little discussed and poorly understood. This is a central gap in the conceptual underpinning of much linguistic investigation. The Feature Inventory offered on the pages of this website is an attempt to put the notion of linguistic 'feature' on a sounder empirical and conceptual base. It aims to provide evidence for the diverse content of features in the world's languages, as well as discuss some of their formal properties, particularly in morphology word structure and syntax sentence structure.
We envisage that the Features website will be useful to theoretical and applied linguists of any persuasion, including computational linguists. We hope that the careful catalogue of the various types and uses of features will aid any further work on the typology of features and provide the basis for a theoretical conceptualisation of the notion 'feature'. It will help demonstrate the type of features on which linguistic theory can legitimately call and the implications of adopting different theoretical perspectives on features while using them for the same descriptive goals.
The website may also prove to be of particular value to fieldworkers and psycholinguists. It will enable the former to check previous work before proposing a new feature for the description or analysis of the investigated language.
Psycholinguists will be able to consult the Inventory while designing experiments. For example, various experiments use two-valued features when a different choice would have led to richer data. The Inventory can be used to inform the choice of language and feature in such instances. The systematisation of language description offered in the Features website may also be of interest to language educators and lexicographers, including the providers of on-line dictionaries and automated translation tools, and anyone who deals with the description as well as formal and semantic classification of words.
Teachers of well-known languages will find in the Inventory information that is not readily available in textbooks for example, why some Russian textbooks list only six declensional cases, but in other textbooks one can find up to ten - how many cases are there, then?
Teachers of various languages will often be able to find a linguistic explanation of a problematic phenomenon, an illumination of a native-speaker intuition, or a debunking of a language myth. Anyone interested in languages will be able to find out exciting facts about various languages and be amazed at the diversity displayed by natural language, particularly as they explore the sections of the Inventory listing 'Feature values', 'Oddly behaving feature markers' or 'Problem cases'.
We believe that the Inventory may also be accessible to inquisitive high school students and may encourage some of them in the future to become linguists - whether theoretical, computational, or fieldworkers documenting languages in danger of extinction. While referring to features and values, we use lower case if the feature or value expresses a cross-linguistic generalisation or a logical possibility e.Some recent efforts to develop standards for encoding IGT e.
Over time it is our hope that these or other standards will see wider use thus e Documents: Advanced Search Include Citations. The Leipzig Glossing Rules. Conventions for interlinear morpheme by morpheme glosses. Add To MetaCart. The key components of the model include the linguistic data resources themselves and those focused on the knowledge derived from data.
Data resources include the ever-increasing amount of linguistic field dat Data resources include the ever-increasing amount of linguistic field data and other descriptive language resources being migrated to the Web. It is argued that such a model is in the spirit of the vision for a Semantic Web and, thus, provides a concrete methodology for rendering highly divergent resources interoperable.
Furthermore, a methodology is given for creating specific communities of practice within the overall scientific domain of linguistics.
A number of services around the model are proposed including knowledge acquisition and search facilities. Repurposing theoretical linguistic data for tool development and search by Fei Xia, William D. Lewis - In Proceedings of the third international joint conference on natural language processing: Volume-i Consequently, supervised methods, as well as many unsupervised methods, cannot be applied directly, leaving these languages largely untouched and unnoticed.
In this paper, we describe the construction of a resource that taps the large body of linguistically analyzed language data that has made its way to the Web, and propose using this resource to bootstrap NLP tool development. Citation Context Linguistic Theory by Emily M.
SG part DET. An interlinear gloss is a way of presenting linguistic data that helps makes it clear what the different words and morphemes of a phrase mean. They consist of multiple lines of data, aligned horizontally at the word boundaries of the original language.
Additional lines may be used to show phonemic information, or other analyses that might be relevant to the phrase being glossed. Interlinear glosses help linguists present language data to audiences that might not be familiar with the language being analyzed, and are an integral part of documenting and discussing languages. Unfortunately, writing interlinear glosses is difficult. Presenting interlinear glosses on websites is also challenging.
While these solutions do work, neither one is great.
Tables are cumbersome to create and maintain, especially for longer glosses that need to span multiple lines. Monospaced interlinear glosses are easier to create, but maintaining alignment manually is time-consuming, especially for long runs of text. On the web, linguists also tend to use either tables or monospaced fonts to create glosses. Creating tables on the web is more time consuming than creating them in WYSIWYG editors, making them even more untenable for longer glosses.
While basic usage of Leipzig. Glosses formatted with Leipzig. It should be easy enough to use for people new to web authorship, while remaining powerful and customizable enough for people that want more control over their interlinear glosses. To view current issues or to file a bug report, please visit the Issues Page on GitHub.
If Leipzig. For more information about interlinear glossing, visit the homepage for the Leipzig Glossing Rules from which Leipzig.
The Leipzig Glossing rules homepage also contains references to other important works on interlinear glossing.NCBI Bookshelf. Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Created: October 10, ; Last Update: August 11, A monograph, commonly called a book, is any work complete in one volume or in a finite number of volumes. Online books are often electronic versions of large printed texts, such as textbooks, manuals, or technical reports, but may also be smaller works such as a brochure, single-page fact sheet, or brief treatise.
Size is not relevant to the definition. Increasingly books are written directly for the Internet to enable hyperlinking, to include complex graphics, and to run multimedia such as film clips and sound. An Internet book may be static, that is fixed in time and unchanged since publication, or may be updated or otherwise revised over time.
Some producers of Internet books permit or otherwise welcome comments or expert opinion from readers and incorporate these comments into the text. Major revisions may be announced as new editions, but more minor additions and changes such as those to add comments, to correct typographical errors, or to update hypertext links may not be noted. Although Internet books differ radically in physical form from the usual print book, the basic rules for citing them do not differ markedly from what is required for print.
There is still an author or organization with responsibility for the item, a title, a place of "publication", a publisher, a date of publication, and the extent of the item i. Anyone citing an Internet document should try to locate all of these elements. Internet sites disappear with great frequency, and users of a citation must be given some other identifying information if they are to locate books on them.
Some elements, however, are more difficult to locate when citing Internet books. For example, some poorly constructed sites do not contain dates, and authorship or publishing responsibility may be unclear or absent. It also may be difficult to discern the title from the collage of graphics presented. The person doing the citing can only work with the information provided. Do not confuse the publisher with the organization that maintains the Web site for the publisher. Publisher information is required in a citation; distributor information may be included as a note if desired.
Some elements require expansion for an Internet citation to provide useful information to the user. For example, the date of publication is required in any citation, but many Internet items are updated or otherwise modified several times after the date of publication.
This is necessary in the volatile Internet environment, where changes can be easily made and an item seen one day may not be the same in crucial ways when viewed the next day.
Producing a print or other copy for future reference is strongly recommended. It is important to cite the version you saw. If you viewed a book on the Internet, do not cite it as if it were a print one. However, it may be useful to begin a citation to a book found on the Internet by first locating all of the information needed to cite it as if it were a print document, then add the Internet-specific items.
For example:. Lefebvre P. Molecular and genetic maps of the nuclear genome. Molecular and genetic maps of the nuclear genome [Internet]. If a book on the Internet does not have a formal title page, look to the opening screens, the bottom or closing screens, links from the sidebar, and the source code viewable through the Web browser to locate citation information.
While all monographs have certain elements in common for citation purposes, such as author, title, publisher information, and date, specific types of monographs have additional elements. For example, a citation to a technical report should include report and contract numbers. Examples of citation to reports and other types of monographs are included in this chapter, but see also the specific chapters about these types for more detail. Refer also to Chapter 2 Books for more examples of book citations.They consist of ten rules for the "syntax" and "semantics" of interlinear glosses, and an appendix with a proposed "lexicon" of abbreviated category labels.
The rules cover a large part of linguists' needs in glossing texts, but most authors will feel the need to add or modify certain conventions especially category labels. Still, it will be useful to have a standard set of conventions that linguists can refer to, and the Leipzig Rules are proposed as such to the community of linguists. The Rules are intended to reflect common usage, and only very few mostly optional innovations are proposed. We intend to update the Leipzig Glossing Rules occasionally, so feedback is highly welcome.
Leipzig, last change: May 31, Further updates will be managed by the Committee of Editors of Linguistics Journals. Important references: Lehmann, Christian. Folia Linguistica Croft, William. Typology and universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. Interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses give information about the meanings and grammatical properties of individual words and parts of words. Linguists by and large conform to certain notational conventions in glossing, and the main purpose of this document is to make the most widely used conventions explicit.
Depending on the author's purposes and the readers' assumed background knowledge, different degrees of detail will be chosen. The current rules therefore allow some flexibility in various respects, and sometimes alternative options are mentioned. The main purpose that is assumed here is the presentation of an example in a research paper or book. When an entire corpus is tagged, somewhat different considerations may apply e.
It should also be noted that there are often multiple ways of analyzing the morphological patterns of a language. The glossing conventions do not help linguists in deciding between them, but merely provide standard ways of abbreviating possible descriptions. Moreover, glossing is rarely a complete morphological description, and it should be kept in mind that its purpose is not to state an analysis, but to give some further possibly relevant information on the structure of a text or an example, beyond the idiomatic translation.
A remark on the treatment of glosses in data cited from other sources: Glosses are part of the analysis, not part of the data.The best way to edit this in text editing programs is by the means of invisible tables, i.
Whitespaces like blanks or tabs are not very helpful for this purpose. For common glossing abbreviations, see the Glossing Abbreviations section.
Some words are neatly separable into different morphemes, others are not. In the expert mode, inflections are marked more specifically as to its type and degree of attachment.
Additionally, morpheme boundaries are not only indicated in the gloss but also in the object language. Consequently, the encoder needs to add an extra glossing transliteration line between the original object language line and the glossing line.Using APA style for references and citations
Note that e. Alternatively, one might want to explicitly mark the paradigmatic missing of a morpheme ending, affix, infix, Caution: This rule may eventually generate some difficult questions, like whether e. In some languages, like many Afro-Asiatic languages, one can neatly separate a a word root and b a vowel pattern, although they are intertwined like two cogwheels.
Help Help Hilfe. Views Page Discussion Edit History. Jump to: navigationsearch. If one object language word corresponds to two or more elements in the gloss, these elements have to be joined by a punctuation mark.
These grammatical categories have to be typeset in small caps small capital lettersor else — but less elegant — in normal capital letters. For the sake of space, frequent grammatical categories are usually abbreviated. In the gloss, the brackets might either follow or precede the gloss of the element with the infix.
Lehmann R LGR : rule 4. LGR : rule 3; Lehmann R LGR : rule 8 there without index and Lehmann R17 with alternative suggestions. This page was last edited on 13 Februaryat NOM], see below.The trend toward learning outside the halls of academe will continue. More spirit, less religion. The Pew Center reports that the fastest growing religion is no religion.
But people will continue to want a source of inspiration and comfort beyond the quotidian. So not-deistic spiritual practices, for example, Buddhism and the related yoga, martial arts, and meditation should flourish.
In light of these predictions, is there anything you want to consider as you're doing strategic planning at work or even in your personal life. Marty I like these predictions but I think you're being a little too optimistic for the NEAR future.
There will be civil unrest and things will get worse before they get better, especially with both the right and left wing being unable to get their heads out of their own asses. Thank you for drawing attention to the fact that "women's empowerment efforts are often creating antipathy toward men". It is an important factor in society and personal relationships of which most people seem to be unaware, in particular, those who stand to be most adversely affected - men.
List of glossing abbreviations
Marty Nemko is a career and personal coach based in Oakland, California, and the author of 7 books. Psychology Today Psychology Today Home Find Counselling Find Find Counselling Find a Psychiatrist Find a Support Group Find a Treatment Centre Professionals Counsellor Login Counsellor Signup Addiction Aging Animal Behavior Anxiety Autism Behavioral Economics Child Development Cognition Creativity Depression Diet Eating Disorders Education Environment Ethics and Morality Evolutionary Psychology Gender Happiness Health Integrative Medicine Intelligence Law and Crime Media Memory Neuroscience Parenting Personal Perspectives Personality Philosophy Politics Procrastination Psych Careers Psychiatry Race and Ethnicity Relationships Resilience Self-Help Sex Sleep Social Life Spirituality Sport and Competition Stress Therapy Work Mental Health Addiction ADHD Anxiety Asperger's Autism Bipolar Disorder Chronic Pain Depression Eating Disorders Insomnia OCD Schizophrenia Personality Passive Aggression Personality Shyness Personal Growth Goal Setting Happiness Positive Psychology Stopping Smoking Relationships Low Sexual Desire Relationships Sex Emotion Management Anger Procrastination Stress Family Life Adolescence Child Development Elder Care Parenting Recently Diagnosed.
Diagnosis Dictionary Types of Therapy Talk To Someone Find A Therapist The Comparison Trap Social comparison is a core element of human nature. It can make us feel lacklusterespecially in the age of social media. Subscribe Issue Archive Give a Gift Customer Service Experts by Topic Public Speakers Media Interviews All Experts Search form Search Find Counselling Counsellors: Get Listed on Psychology Today Marty Nemko Ph. How To Do Life Long-term trends that people involved in strategic planning should consider.
Adverse effects of women's empowerment in society Submitted by Ziggy on November 15, 2017 - 4:34am Thank you for drawing attention to the fact that "women's empowerment efforts are often creating antipathy toward men". Post Comment Your name E-mail The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. In Print: The Best of Marty Nemko: The best of his 3,000 articles on career, living, and making a difference.
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The predictions result from background conversations with team officials, agents and other people in the loop, as well as an attempt to think along with clubs and players.
The belle of the free-agent ball: durable, personable and entering his age-28 season. The Red Sox will sign either him or Hosmer. How much will his terrible World Series hurt his value. Or to flip the question, how much would a good World Series have helped his value. Three straight years of stellar regular-season and extensive postseason innings bolster his resume.
Of this free-agent class, the leader in WAR (using both Baseball-Reference. Man, what a run the Royals had, huh.
Three of the top seven free agents are theirs. He and the Indians have such a good thing going. To be clear: Whoever signs him controls him for at least six years. Zack Cozart, SS: What to make of a guy who put up his best year, by far, in his age-31 season.
He came back strong in his first full year after Tommy John surgery. He too rebounded nicely after missing 2016 due to TJ surgery.