The history of rail transport in Great Britain — covers the period when the British railway system was nationalised under the name of British Rail initially known as British Railwaysuntil its eventual privatisation in The railway system in this period underwent modernisation, reorganisation and rebrandingsome of which proved controversial.
The use of steam locomotives on the network also ended in this period. Due to falling passenger numbers, rail subsidies from the government were necessary to keep the railways financially viable. Concerns about the levels of these contributed to the Beeching cuts which closed down many less well used lines.
The Transport Act nationalised nearly all forms of mass transport in Great Britain and came into effect on 1 January A few independent light railways and industrial railwayswhich did not contribute significant mileage to the system, were not included in British Railways; nor the Glasgow Underground and London Undergroundalready both public concerns, the Liverpool Overhead Railwayand non-railway-owned tramways.
The first priority of the new British Railways Board was to repair the infrastructure of the railways damaged by bombing, clear the backlog of maintenance that had built up, and make good losses in locomotives and rolling stock. By the start of the s, British Railways were making a working profit, albeit a small one. However, Britain had fallen well behind the rest of Europe in terms of dieselisation and electrification of its railways. There were political as well as practical reasons behind the resistance to dieselisation in particular: the Labour Government of Clement Attlee did not want to significantly reduce the demand for domestically-produced coal in favour of imported oil, thus both affecting the balance of payments and potentially causing unemployment.
Robin Riddleswho was effectively the British Railways' Chief Mechanical Engineer, disagreed with the dieselisation programme, arguing that it would be too expensive to import oil given the large amounts of domestically available coal. He continued to order steam locomotives on a large scale and from to1, steam locomotives were built. Although the initial focus was on repairing and renewing, some pre-war capital investment schemes that had stopped upon the outbreak of hostilities were restarted, for example the Manchester—Sheffield—Wath electrification over the Woodhead route and the Great Eastern suburban electrification.
The new BR regions, formed largely around the management structures of the old "Big Four" companies, remained autonomous in terms both of organisation and production of locomotives and rolling stock, mostly continuing with pre-war designs — indeed, some designs were even older: the workhorse LNER Class J17 was designed in As a whole, the equipment of the new British Railways was outdated, often unreliable, and mostly in urgent need of a refurbishment.
Only the Southern Region with its large electrified suburban network in South London inherited from the Southern Railway operated a significant number of non-steam-powered trains. These standard designs were designed to be long-lasting but in the event few served to their full potential before being withdrawn during the s. By the middle of the decade, however, it was clear that British Railways were in trouble, particularly in the freight haulage business to which they were losing ground to road and air traffic the latter thanks to a postwar glut of available transport aircraft.
The government ordered a review. The report formally known as Modernisation and Re-Equipment of the British Railwaysmore commonly the "Modernisation Plan",  was published in December It was intended to bring the railway system up to date. A government White Paper produced in stated that modernisation would help eliminate BR's financial deficit by The aim was to increase speed, reliability, safety and line capacity, through a series of measures which would make services more attractive to passengers and freight operators, thus recovering traffic that was being lost to the roads.
The important areas were:. However many railway historians including Christian Wolmar Henshaw and others now regard it as a costly failure and a missed opportunity. With political considerations all-but requiring that all these locomotives be built by British firms, the scope of this project was beyond the existing capacity of the British locomotive industry. This led to many designs being submitted, and accepted, from manufacturers with little or no direct experience in main-line locomotive construction.
The short timescale of the Plan also meant that there was little time for prototype locomotives to be properly evaluated, trialled and, if needed, modified or improved.The Class 9F was the last in a series of standardised locomotive classes designed for British Railways during the s, and was intended for use on fast, heavy freight trains over long distances.
It was one of the most powerful steam locomotive types ever built for British Railways, and successfully performed its intended duties. The class was given the nickname of 'Spaceships', due to its size and shape.
At various times during the s, the 9Fs worked passenger trains with great success, indicating the versatility of the design, sometimes considered to represent the ultimate in British steam development. Several experimental variants were constructed in an effort to reduce costs and maintenance, although these met with varying degrees of success.
The total number built wasproduction being shared between Swindon 53 and Crewe Works The last of the class, Evening Starwas the final steam locomotive to be built by British Railways, in Withdrawals of the class began inwith the final locomotives being withdrawn from service inthe final year of steam traction on British Railways.
Several examples have survived into the preservation era in varying states of repair, including Evening Star. The British Transport Commission had proposed that the existing steam locomotive fleet be replaced by both diesel and electric traction. However the board of British Railwayswhich wanted the railways to be completely electrifiedignored the BTC and ordered a new fleet of 'standard' steam locomotive designs as an interim motive power solution ahead of electrification.
Parker, who made the case for a new design of powerful freight locomotive, able to shift heavy loads at fast speeds in round trips between distant destinations within the eight-hour shift of the footplate crew.
The resultant design became one of the most successful, but shortest-lived, locomotive classes ever built in Britain. However, in order to clear the rear coupled wheels, the grate had to be set higher, thus reducing firebox volume. There were many problems associated with locomotives of such a long wheelbase, but these were solved by the design team through a series of compromises.
LMS Patriot Class
The centre driving wheels had no flangesand those on the second and fourth coupled wheels were reduced in depth. Introduced in January the class comprised locomotives, of which 53 were constructed at Swindon Worksand at Crewe Works.
The locomotives were numbered To mark the occasion, a competition was run within the Western Region of British Railways to choose an apt name, and the locomotive was given the name and number of Evening Star. Withdrawals of the class from everyday service began in Mayand had been completed by June The 9F was used as a proving ground for a variety of technical innovations intended to provide improvements in efficiency, power or cost.
Ten locomotives numbers were built in with the Franco-Crosti boiler. The standard chimney on top of the smokebox was only used during lighting up. In normal working the gases went through firetubes inside the preheater drum that led to a second smokebox situated beneath the boiler from which there emerged a chimney on the right-hand side, just forward of the firebox.
In the event, the experiment did not deliver the hoped-for benefits, and efficiency was not increased sufficiently to justify the cost and complexity.Please log in to add to WorkSpaces.
Not registered? Register now. Pinewood Stock Can material. Shot along railway tracks as steam train approaches camera from the distance. Nice shot as locomotive and carriages pass the camera. Different location - steam train comes round bend and past camera - carriages are in British Railways livery. VS of different loco hauling train into station. High angle shot of large area of points just outside station - trains move back and forth.
MS train leaving station platform. More shots of steam engines and trains. VS of shunter moving along track. Nice shots of this streamlined locomotive moving off.
We always welcome comments and more information about our films. All posts are reactively checked. Libellous and abusive comments are forbidden. Please Register or Log in to add a comment. Steam Trains Add to WorkSpace. License this Film. Film ID: Comments 0 We always welcome comments and more information about our films. Add your comment Please Register or Log in to add a comment.This is a list of named passenger trains in the United Kingdom. These are specific regular journeys identified by a special name in the timetable, not to be confused with the names of engines or individual physical train rakes.
One-off charter or sporadic special trains are not included. The National Railway MuseumYork, has a wall in the Great Hall where the headboards of a number of named trains are displayed.
Southern Region of British Railways
See also railwaybritain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. Great Western Railway. Retrieved 29 June Ian Allan. The birth of British Rail. October Railway Magazine. Anglia East - The Transformation of a Railway. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. Sussex County Magazine.
Express Titles". Western Daily Press. Retrieved 19 December — via British Newspaper Archive. Aberdeen Press and Journal. Rugby Advertiser. Retrieved 13 November — via British Newspaper Archive. LNER 3 ed. Shepperton: Ian Allan. November Hereford: TCL Publications. British Rail - the first 25 Years. August Modern Railways.
Network Rail.How to use this site. Example Page. My Book Collection. Advertise Here. This nucleus of this site started when I was 14, long before the advent of the internet, and was originally intended to be nothing more than a detailed map of the railways of Manchester. Many years later, the internet came along and with it came the vast opportunities that web publishing offers the amateur historian. This tempted me down a silly route where, instead of concentrating on what I know intimately, I expanded to cover the whole country.
This was a huge mistake. Quite simply, the project has defeated me for a couple of reasons:. Firstly, it is becoming increasingly hard to ignore the fact that other people are involved in similar projects and doing them better. What is the point in simply repeating the work that others are doing?
There are unique aspects to my site and that is what has kept me going. For instance, the links at junctions that allow you to browse the network from line to line. Secondly is the fact that I have considerably less time - and perhaps even less will - to work on a project that feels increasingly like the proverbial painting of the Forth Bridge.
So, all in all it seems logical to scale things back. I recognise that people find my site a useful resource as it is, so I intend to retain everything as it is. However, from now on I will not be updating anything outside of the Manchester area. Below this announcement you will find the original introduction, a list of lines specific to Manchester, and then the original menu for the whole country.
This website is intended primarily to give a picture of British Railways as it was c. With the aid of a set of rule books issued to railwaymen, the Sectional Appendix, I have listed all running lines and all locations, along with point to point mileages. My next step is to provide clickable links at junction locations to enable easy navigation between connecting routes.
Finally, other information will be added, such as opening and closing dates of lines and stations. Find where you are looking for by using the search box provided, or by clicking on one of the links below. Please assist the project by emailing me with any errors that you might find. Junction exc.
Junction to Kenyon Junction No.British Railways shed codes were used to identify the engine sheds that its locomotives and multiple units were allocated to for maintenance purposes.
The former London, Midland and Scottish Railway LMS alpha-numeric system was extended to cover all regions and used until replaced by alphabetic codes in The coding system had its origins in a reorganisation of locomotive operation and maintenance on the LMS in the period. Many sheds were also responsible for sub-sheds where day-to-day servicing could be carried out but which lacked the facilities for intermediate or heavy overhauls. The extension of the system to all regions was brought into use ineach region being given a block of district numbers:.
Many codes changed as districts were re-organised and as regional boundaries changed over the years. In September the district was transferred to the North Eastern Region and split between districts 53, 55 and 56; Goole became 53E in the Hull District.
This district was itself merged with the York District in January and so Goole was re-coded again to become 50D.
The changes accelerated with the contraction of the railway network and modernisation, both of which reduced the number of locomotives in use. For example, the Inverness district had five sheds and seven sub-sheds in but these had been reduced to a single shed by On 6 May all the remaining depot codes were replaced by new two-letter codes. These no longer included any kind of district hierarchy, but were more suitable for use with the TOPS operating management computers.
When a locomotive was reallocated to a different shed the plate was taken off and replaced with one from the new shed. Locomotives moved between a parent depot and its sub-sheds did not need this change as they shared the same code. With the introduction of diesel and electric motive power the system of allocation became changed.
Main line locomotives were capable of operating greater distances between servicing and, very often, depots only held the equipment and spare parts for servicing a limited range of locomotive classes.
List of British Railways shed codes
This resulted in them being allocated to a smaller number of depots and reallocations became less common. For instance, the 74 Western Region Class 52 diesel-hydraulics were only ever allocated to six depots and were eventually all based to just one Laira rather than spread around more than 60 depots on the region, although they could often be found at many of these others.
Those that did had them in a variety of positions: Class 42s on the underframe below the cab but near-identical Class 43s on the front next to the left buffer; after the code was generally painted on the bodywork near the cab door. For example, locomotives in the D01 London Western Division were effectively based at principal depot Willesden. The North Eastern became part of an enlarged Eastern Region inhowever the shed codes remained unchanged. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Wikipedia list article. Bromsgrove: Roger Harris. March The Railway Magazine. Diesel-Hydraulic Locomotives of the Western Region. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. The Book of the Warships. Clophill: Irwell Press. Shepperton: Ian Allan. Categories : British railway-related lists Railway depots in the United Kingdom British Rail numbering and classification systems British Rail infrastructure. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.The Southern Region was a region of British Railways from until when railways were re-privatised.
The region ceased to be an operating unit in its own right in the s. The region covered south Londonsouthern England and the south coast, including the busy commuter belt areas of Kent, Sussex and Surrey. The region was largely based upon the former Southern Railway area. The Southern Railway was still comparatively profit-making despite World War IIthanks to its extensive third rail DC electrification and the intensive service patterns this allowed for.
However, large-scale investment was required in the infrastructure of all of the "Big 4" companies, including the Southern. The Transport Act provided for the nationalisation of all heavy rail systems in the UK to allow for this investment and, in theory, to improve the rights of railway workers. The railway companies were amalgamated into British Railways, part of the British Transport Commissionand six geographic and administrative regions were created out of the previous four companies.
The Southern Railway, being relatively self-contained and operated largely by electric traction, was incorporated almost intact as the new Southern Region. There was also an unelectrified service to parts of Devon and Cornwalldeep in what was largely Western Region territory, known colloquially as "The Withered Arm". There were three operating divisions: Eastern, Central and Western which correspond approximately to the three current franchise areas.
The Region's chief stations in Central London were:. Underused stations such as those between East Grinstead and Lewes a few of them later reopened with the Bluebell Railwayand most of the Isle of Wight's lines were closed in the s.
The Beeching Axe severely cut route mileages of most regions but the Southern escaped major losses in the London area due to high passenger numbers on its frequent suburban services. The lines in Devon and Cornwall were reclassified to the Western Region and the Southern's luxury trains, including the Atlantic Coast Express and the Brighton Belleceased in the s and 70s.
The Snow Hill tunnel between Blackfriars and Farringdon closed in the s, then later reopened as part of the earliest proposals of the Thameslink Programme. At the same time, Holborn Viaduct in central London closed inreplaced with City Thameslink occupying the same site at an underground level. More station closures came in the s, such as the Addiscombe Line. As a contrast, London Waterloo had been extensively refurbished and expanded to allow development of the Eurostar 's Waterloo International railway station terminal.
These platforms were closed after international services have moved to St Pancras International in They were reopened respectively in and to increase capacity for suburban services.
The plan to build a tunnel under the English Channel also included plans to upgrade the infrastructure of the Southern Region between London and the Kent coast.